Onychomycosis or fungus on the nails is one of the most well-known and insidious diseases that must be treated in order not to cause complications. In this disease, the nail plate on the hands or feet is affected, followed by a closely spaced part of the skin. The affected area has an unattractive appearance and is perceived as a significant aesthetic problem that can be a factor in many complexes. In addition, as the disease progresses, the body will suffer from toxins that the fungal microflora secretes throughout its life. For this reason, one should learn to recognize nail fungus in the initial stage.
The first signs of the presence of fungus on the nails appear in the earliest stages of development of this disease, first of all, you can see changes in the nail plate, which takes on a yellowish hue, becomes very dull and dull. The most common fungal infection occurs on the toes, but if left untreated, the spread of pathogenic bacteria continues. After a relatively short period of time, this disease spreads to other toenails, which also become yellow, become blunt, and after a while generally peel, thicken and become very hard and are difficult to cut with scissors. Many are interested in what the initial stage of nail fungus looks like, whose photo is attached. Let's try to figure it out.
Patients with the problem of nail fungus often come to a dermatologist, and the infection occurs in different ways.
The disease can be actively developed with a complete lack of hygiene, as well as with the use of any personal items that belong to the sick person. Thus, for example, there is a high probability of picking fungi that cause disease when using a towel belonging to a sick person or his shoes.
It is not uncommon for people to visit a dermatologist when visiting a swimming pool, public showers, gyms or other places with high temperatures and high humidity. Such conditions are considered the most ideal for the spread of pathogenic fungi.
You can easily catch fungal nail disease at a party, for that you just need to wear slippers that the owner often gets into if he has this problem.
In summer, more than 50% of people come to visit a dermatologist after visiting the beach, as the moist sand, which is generously sprinkled along the banks of a river, sea or some other body of water, is also a great place for pathogenic fungi.
In the initial phase of the nail fungus on the hand, whose photo is above, it is almost impossible to take into account the disease, it develops so asymptomatically. Even noticing changes in the nail, many perceive it as a lack of adequate amounts of vitamins and do not worry.
However, over time, the disease can lead to the rapid spread of dangerous lesions. But still, a nail plate with altered structure and color will tell about the disease at an early stage:
- whitish spots appear longitudinally, in the form of stripes, rounded;
- natural healthy glow and smoothness disappear;
- the surface becomes wavy, begins to thicken.
Over time, the infection can destroy the nail plate, spread to healthy nails, which often leads to inflammation and fertilization of periungual tissues.
Therefore, it is so necessary to know the primary symptoms of nail fungus in the initial stage:
- they gradually deform, become too brittle, separate;
- color change, depending on the degree of hue, the degree of disease can be determined;
- the plaque grows into the skin causing pain;
- the skin becomes darker under the nails;
- itching and burning on the fingertips.
If the nail is damaged due to dermatophytes, early manifestations occur depending on the type of disease:
- s I, toenails and toes are affected at the same time, then the infection affects the fingernails;
- Type II is characterized by damage to the thumb or little finger and then affects the interdigital folds with the formation of cracks;
- in type III the thumb and little finger are affected, but the skin does not suffer.
If the yeast became the cause of toenail fungus in the initial phase, whose photo is attached, in the early phase it is difficult to determine that a pathological process has begun in the body. Only after some time will the nail plate begin to peel, and itchy skin around the nail will appear.
Diagnosis of nail fungus in the initial stage is carried out by different methods:
- Visual inspection, in which it can be discovered that the spots are characteristic of a fungal disease. There may be yellow, gray or brown shades, lack of shine or, conversely, its excess, redness of the skin around the nail. The ring structure is also a characteristic symptom of fungus on the hands. Acne, fluid blisters, rough, dry skin and cracks, ulcers are possible. In children, nail fungus develops in a different way: damage to the upper layer of the nail, white spots. However, even the initial stage of fungal transmission can self-diagnose if it recognizes the symptoms of the disease.
- The method of inoculation, during which the patient is taken for analysis part of the nail with a probable fungus. It is placed in a nutrient medium, and the ongoing processes are monitored for a month. Increased reproduction of fungi indicates mycosis. If the material stays clean, it means that there are no nail diseases.
- Examination under a microscope. Skin flakes or nail particles are placed under a microscope and observed. In mycosis, spore chains will be observed, as well as individual spores or mycelial filaments.
How to treat nail fungus in the initial stage
Fungal infection of the skin and nail skin is a rather unpleasant disease characterized by damage to the nail plate, cuticle, epidermis. At the same time, the person feels constant discomfort associated with itching, burning, pressing of shoes on the affected area due to the tightness of the nail plate. Today, there are a huge number of pharmaceutical preparations for removing fungal structures. However, they are all characterized by a long course of treatment. Folk remedies and recipes will help you deal quickly and painlessly with fungal nail infection in the initial stage. The main ones of the most reliable and efficient are:
- Using a soap solution. The soap solution perfectly kills fungi and other microbes that could get on the dry skin of the hands or feet in microscopic wounds. Use the usual 72% laundry soap to prepare the drawers. It can be grated or simply melted in a bowl of hot water. It is necessary to mate hands and feet for 15-25 minutes. After the procedure, the affected areas of the skin and part of the nail plate are sanded with a special file. Then rinse with clean warm water using an antiseptic. Wipe dry with a clean towel.
- Soaking feet and hands in lactic acid solution. Lactic acid penetrates well through the skin and kills fungi, bacteria, viruses. You can buy it in pharmacies, order it online. To prepare the solution, use 3 teaspoons of 40% lactic acid, 1 liter of warm, almost hot water. Before steaming, the nails should be rinsed well and treated with a small amount of soap. If there is microtrauma on the skin, it is necessary to leave other lesions using lactic acid.
- Antiseptic treatment with ammonia solution. Ammonia solution is a popular pharmaceutical product that is purchased to treat nail fungus in the initial stages. It is applied with a cotton swab to the damaged area, evaporating and cleansed of the stratum corneum.
- Treatment with a weak solution of manganese. "Potassium permanganate" is widely used in everyday life for the treatment of wounds, small and large cuts, cauterization of corn, for rapid healing of sutures. In the practice of treating fungal infection, a solution of potassium permanganate shows its effectiveness only in the early stages of the pathological process, in advanced cases it is a good antiseptic.
- Treatment of the fungal zone with bleach. Chlorine is a powerful agent that kills 99. 9% of bacteria. It is used to disinfect rooms, wash clothes (if seriously ill people live in the house) and to remove various skin infections. The fungus is well destroyed by a bleach solution, which is prepared in the amount of 50 grams of substance per 1 liter of hot water. The feet or hands are immersed in the cooled solution for 2-3 minutes. Then the treated area is washed with warm boiled water and wiped with a dry specially prepared towel.
- Formaldehyde treatment. A ready-made solution is used to treat the nail plate. No more than 1 drop of the substance should be applied to the damaged area. After soaking, hands or feet should be washed in cold running water. The use of formaldehyde as an antifungal agent is allowed no more than once a week.
- Rubbing essential oils. Tea tree essential oil, licorice, mint, orange copes well with inflammatory skin diseases. Their use is recommended in the complex therapy of fungal infections, to restore the integrity and beauty of the nail plate after overgrowth.
Medical treatment of diseases
Initial nail fungus usually has no symptoms. The appearance of the nails can change a bit, mild discomfort is possible, so it is quite difficult to diagnose the fungus. However, this must be done as quickly as possible, as it will depend on how quickly the person can get rid of it. Usually, drugs that have a local effect on the affected areas of the nail are used to treat nail fungus in the initial stage. In the more advanced course of the fungus, the use of injections and tablets is usually indicated. Conventionally, mycosis treatment methods are divided into the following:
- Creams, gels and ointments are designed to restore the skin's metabolic processes, nourish and moisturize tissues.
- After applying the solution and drops penetrate into the deep layers of the nail preventing the appearance of fungal infection.
- Injections and pills are used as the main therapy when the fungus progresses to a more advanced stage. They can be supplemented with drugs from the previous categories.
Varnishes and greases
According to mycologists, in the treatment of fungal infections that occur on the nails should prevent its reproduction. This is done in a complex - first it is necessary to allow pathogenic microorganisms an aggressive environment and conditions unacceptable for its development, then it is necessary to strengthen the immune system, and also begin the process of regeneration of nail tissue. Usually doctors prescribe nonsteroidal and steroidal drugs:
- Azole is used for the rapid development of mycosis to treat many yeast-like fungi.
- Allylamine is similar to antibiotics, however, the action is aimed solely at destroying the fungus. These antifungals help slow the reproduction of spores and reduce the candida colony, thus providing a fungicidal accumulation effect on the skin and nails.
Tablets and injections
In addition to external treatment of nail mycosis, the fermentation of pathogenic mycelium should be slowed down. For this purpose, doctors prescribe tablets with fungicidal properties. There are cases when complete recovery cannot be achieved without these drugs, especially if the patient has developed an advanced form of sporotrichosis. The following medications are commonly used:
- Capsules for systemic therapy of nail fungus caused by sporophytes - yeast pathogens. It is quite powerful and does not require additional medication.
- A drug that activates protective functions and also normalizes the microflora. To enhance the effect, you can apply the solution to the affected areas of the nail.
- Drops that belong to the allylamine group and enable the fight against fungal strains. The active ingredient - naftifine hydrochloride - is well absorbed, creating a protective film that prevents the penetration of fungal infections into the deep layers of the skin.
- A Chinese medicine that is cheap but gives almost instant results. It consists of synthetic compounds and plant extracts from China. It is important to note that this drug affects not only fungal infections of the nails, but also other pathogenic microorganisms.
- If the patient has itching and pain, it is recommended to apply analgesics to the affected area, and only then use medicated creams, gels and ointments. In addition, baking soda and alcohol can remove these unpleasant feelings.
Nowadays, fungal nail infection, which will be detected in the initial stage, is quite successfully treated using modern drugs. A neglected fungus on the nails can be treated for a long time.
Nail fungus is a rather sensitive problem which, in addition, causes many inconveniences. And if the defeat of the nail plate on the fingers can still be hidden, then the layering on the hands is not. People around, seeing the changes happening to a person, try to avoid it, avoid direct contact and look at each other with disgust. And at that moment, the main problem for them becomes the observance of the basic rules of protection against the appearance of a fungal infection.
List of protective techniques
What is included in the list of protection techniques:
- When visiting public baths, saunas, swimming pools, it is necessary to use special shoes with rubber soles. Do not get up anywhere barefoot and do not sit on benches, benches, bumpers without a base.
- The use of shared showers is not recommended in case of micro injuries to the skin of the hands; you should also refrain from visiting gyms and wards.
- When processing nails (manicure and pedicure) you need to use only your own tools, well treated and cleaned.
- It is better to buy shoes only from natural materials. Be sure to use bamboo or cotton socks when trying them on.
- It is strictly forbidden to use general hygiene items (towels). When fungal and other infections appear, they spread quickly among all family members.
- Hands should be washed as often as possible, taking care to wipe them with a dry disposable paper towel.
- It is forbidden to borrow other people's shoes: slippers, flip-flops, shoes and especially sneakers. This leads to a rapid increase in the number of pathogenic bacteria and mass infection. Shoe processing after a few people is already useless.